When thinking about cost behavior, think about how the cost behaves in total. A variable cost is a cost that varies in total. The cost increases or decreases based on a related activity.

The formula for total variable cost is:

Total Variable Cost = Variable Rate X Activity

Assume a constant rate

For planning and decision making purposes, we assume that the variable rate is constant. This allows for a single variable in the calculations. Only the activity will change. Now, that is not always the case, but as long as we are within the relevant range for our decision, we can assume that the rate will stay the same.

But isn’t it fixed if the rate stays the same?

Remember that a variable cost varies in total. The rate might stay the same but once you multiply the rate by varying levels of activity, the total variable cost will change.

Imagine that you are selling candy bars as a fundraiser for a club to which you belong. Your cost is 50 cents per candy bar and the club sells the candy bars for $1 each. If the club sells 200 candy bars, what is the total variable cost? Is it 50 cents? No, that is the cost of a single candy bar. If you sell 200, you would need to multiply that by 50 cents for each of the candy bars sold.

200 candy bars X 50 cents per candy bar = $100

What if the club sold 500 candy bars? The total variable cost would be $250.

Here is a graph of the total variable cost of candy bars for the fundraiser:

Total Variable Cost

Notice that if no candy bars are sold, there is no cost. The more candy bars that are sold, the higher the cost. The cost line is a straight line. The slope of the line is equal to the variable rate. For each additional unit sold, the line increases at a rate of 50 cents. Think of the formula of a line: y=mx + b, where y is your y coordinate, x is your x coordinate, m is the slope and b is the y-intercept (the point where the line hits the y-axis).

The formula for total variable cost is: y=mx. The y-intercept for a variable cost is always zero because if there is no activity, there is no cost. Therefore, the line will always start at 0,0. The slope of the line, m, is your variable rate. The activity is x. See your math teacher was right when he or she told you you would use this stuff someday!

Frequently, you will see textbooks show the formula for the slope of a line as the formula for cost equations.

Related Videos

Cost Behavior: Fixed, Variable, Step and Mixed 

Fixed and Variable costs as per unit and total costs

Share This:

Related pages

normal balance of income summaryending inventory definitionpayroll accounting journal entriesdepreciation declining balancereceivable ageingmerchandiser companieshow to find the present value of an annuityreceivable agingstatement of retained earnings examplesclosing entries are madebad debt write off journal entryfifo and lifo calculatorrevenue minus cost of goods soldaccounting cogsnetpay payrollfixed cost and variable cost formulapurchase returns and allowancesdeclining depreciation calculatorwhat are examples of variable expensescontribution margin per unit calculatoradjusting entry exampleraw materials purchased formulawhere is accumulated depreciation on the balance sheethow to calculate the average inventorycalculating cogshow to calculate profit margin per unitfactory overhead cost examplesunearned revenue is classified ast accounts assets and liabilitiesequation rearrangerlifo inventoryformula of average variable costwhich account would normally not require an adjusting entrytabular analysis accountingwhat is the present value of an ordinary annuityhow to prepare unadjusted trial balanceexample of fixed costs and variable costsperpetual unit priceswhere is unearned revenue recordedjournal entry and adjusting journal entryhow to solve weighted averagesfinancial accounting versus managerial accountingfinding ending inventory using fifoincome statements exampleswip materialexamples of accounting journal entriesresponsibility accounting performance reportsfifo inventory calculatorexample of absorption costingwhat does fixed expenses meanwhat is an example of a variable expensejournal entry of bills receivablecomputing gross profitformula for retained earningswhat is lifo and fifo with exampleunrecorded carsfifo cost of goods soldprovision for income tax journal entrywhat is double declining balance depreciationprepaid journal entrycomputing depreciationhow to calculate accounts payable on balance sheetfica tax rates 2014favourable or favorableaccumulated depreciation adjusting entryprepaid insurance on income statementaging account receivableactivity based costing abc methodmedicare tax percentagebasics of accounting entriesemployer payroll taxes calculatordepreciation calculator straight line methodrevenue accrual journal entryallowance method of accounting for uncollectible receivablesmanagerial accounting budgetslabor costingsaccounting tabular analysis